Monday, May 18, 2009

Soy Sauce Studies

Soy sauce is a great flavoring agent. It’s perfect, of course, for Asian inspired dishes. But it’s also great in beef dishes. Before CHF (congestive heart failure) affected my cooking approach, I always added a tablespoon or so of soy sauce to beef stew, pot roast, Swedish style meatballs, even super simple hamburger gravy. The addition of a bit of soy sauce boosted the “beefiness” of those and other dishes. It’s the umami , a basic flavor profile that is common to savory products such as meat, cheese, and mushrooms.

What’s the problem with using soy sauce? It’s as salty as all get out! Even the so-called low sodium versions are pretty high in sodium content. When it comes to “heart healthy” recipes and products, soy sauce is ever present. It’s understandable because it does add so much flavor. It makes a terrific marinade for all kinds of super lean cuts of meat. You can make tasty stir-fries with just a smidgen of meat and an overload of good-for-you veggies. But… Just because a dish is low in fat, doesn’t mean it’s necessarily “heart healthy.” Anyone suffering from hypertension, CHF, and other heart-related problems knows that controlling sodium intake is important too.

A quick look at the soy sauce options readily available at most grocery stores are pretty discouraging. Kikkoman regular soy sauce has 920 mg. of sodium for just one tablespoon. Its lite or reduced sodium version has 575 mg. per tablespoon. Better but definitely not great. San-J Tamari has similar numbers: the regular is 960 mg. for one tablespoon while the reduced sodium version has 700 mg. per tablespoon.

Are there any decent alternatives out there? Well, one possibility is making your own low sodium soy sauce substitute. Dick Logue of Low Sodium Cooking has come up with a relatively tasty substitute. I’ve made it a couple of times and adjusted some of the ingredients to fit my tastes, mainly lessening the vinegar & molasses quantities. The biggest difficulty I had was that the recipe made about 2 cups of substitute and I simply could not use it up quickly enough. So, even though it was refrigerated, it eventually developed a bit of mold. Commercially bottled soy sauce has a much longer shelf life; it can truly last indefinitely.

I’ve read posts on so many forums touting the low sodium content of Bragg’s Liquid Aminos and its use as a soy sauce alternative. Bragg’s products are readily available in the natural foods sections of most grocery stores and at most health food stores. The problem is that most of the people hyping the low sodium properties of Bragg’s haven’t done the math correctly. The Bragg’s current website notes that 1 teaspoon is considered one serving, and that single teaspoon contains 320 mg. sodium. It takes three of those teaspoons to equal one tablespoon, the standard serving size for soy sauce. 3 x 160 mg. = 960 mg. per tablespoon of Bragg’s. I don’t see how that can be considered a truly low salt alternative. (For more information about Liquid Aminos, check out this more recent POST.)

The idea of shopping at an Asian market, if you've got one nearby, is a good one. That way you could spend hours searching the aisles and checking labels. You might discover some hitherto unknown brands of soy sauce, oyster sauce, hoisin sauce, fish sauce, etc. with very low sodium contents. It could be a lot of fun.

All is not lost, however. Years ago I discovered House of Tsang Lower Sodium Soy Sauce from Healthy Heart Market. This soy sauce has 320 mg. sodium per tablespoon. But the lowest sodium is by far China Town Soy Sauce, also from Healthy Heart Market. It has only 145 mg. per tablespoon. Now that’s super low! It doesn't have the more refined taste of saltier soy sauces, but it's a good enough low sodium option.

If you’re interested in creating low sodium Asian style dishes & stir fries, you’ll need some other flavoring ingredients in addition to just soy sauce. Toasted sesame oil is a must. A drizzle on top of finished dishes or in marinades adds a wonderful toasted, nutty flavor. Most grocery stores carry at least one brand in the ethnic foods aisle. Another must-have is unseasoned rice wine vinegar. Combined with other flavoring agents, it adds extra sparkle. Hot chili oil with or without red pepper flakes are also necessary. Just the slightest sprinkle enlivens bland dishes. Of course, if you like hot foods, add more.

Ginger & garlic are other requirements. Both flavors are necessary for Asian style dishes. And it doesn’t matter how you get that flavor. You can find powdered ginger or garlic powder everywhere. Most grocery stores carry jarred crushed ginger and jarred crushed garlic in their produce section. Usually the bottled garlic & ginger are prepared without salt. Many stores now carry the Christopher Ranch whole peeled garlic cloves in the refrigerated section of their produce department. And some stores carry Gourmet Garden fresh herb pastes in handy tubes. These are usually found in the refrigerated section of the produce department. Watch out, though. Be sure to read the labels. Although the product is super convenient, the chili & garlic pastes are relatively high in sodium. However, the ginger and cilantro/coriander pastes are pretty good. And, in order to create a consistency useful for squeezing out of a tube, fillers have been added so the herbal flavor may not be as strong as desired. Of course, there’s always fresh ginger & fresh heads of garlic.

Cilantro is another flavoring agent that works well in Asian style dishes. A generous sprinkling of the freshly chopped herb really boosts taste. Although fresh cilantro is best used as a finishing garnish, I have also thrown a couple of tablespoons of my own homemade frozen chopped cilantro into marinades & stir fries. Not as good as fresh, but better than no cilantro at all.

Another handy ingredient is Chinese Five Spice Powder This spice blend most commonly combines the sweet tones of star anise, fennel seeds, cloves, ginger, and cinnamon with the bite of Szechwan pepper and sometimes white pepper. The sweet and pungent flavor goes well with meats and stir fries. Be forewarned, though. A little goes a long way. So you’re better off using just a ⅛ teaspoon to start with until you’re sure you like the flavor. It's also available in the ethnic foods section of most grocery stores.

The bottom Line: If you make your own lower sodium soy sauce substitute, then “the sky’s the limit.” You don’t have to worry about soy sauce sodium quantities at all. Just be sure to watch out for other Asian ingredients that are high in sodium. Things like Hoisin sauce, Oyster sauce, Thai fish sauce, garlic/chili paste, etc.

If you'd prefer using a commercially prepared lower sodium soy sauce, look for Asian inspired recipes that do not call for more than ¼ cup of soy sauce. Instead of the ¼ cup, just use 2 tablespoons of low sodium soy sauce.

And, of course, please realize that lower sodium soy sauces or soy sauce substitutes will NOT taste as good as the higher quality, authentic Chinese or Japanese sauces. But they will taste pretty good and they will definitely be lower in sodium.

Here’s a basic stir fry sauce & marinade recipe. Obviously, you can change the quantities to please your palate:

Basic Stir Fry Sauce/Marinade
(Printable Recipe)

1 tbsp. toasted sesame oil (you may prefer less - start with 1 tsp.)
1 tbsp. minced garlic (you may prefer less - start with 1 tsp.)
1 tbsp. minced ginger (you may prefer less - start with 1 tsp.)
¼ cup NSA chicken broth
2 tbsp. low sodium soy sauce
1 tbsp. brown sugar
⅛ tsp. hot chili oil (or more)
¼ tsp. white pepper
2 tsp. unseasoned rice vinegar
2 tsp. cornstarch dissolved in 1 tbsp. water
⅛ tsp. 5 spice powder (optional)
Chopped fresh cilantro (garnish)

For Pour-On Sauce: Heat the sesame oil in a small saucepan. Add the ginger and garlic and stir-fry 15-30 seconds over medium heat to bring out the flavor. Add the chicken broth, soy sauce, brown sugar, chili oil, white pepper, and vinegar (Add 5 spice powder, if using). Bring just to a boil, stirring. Dissolve the cornstarch in the water and whisk into the sauce. Heat until sauce thickens and reaches a full boil. Simmer for 30 seconds. Remove from the heat and set aside.

For Marinade: Combine all the ingredients and mix until well blended. Add ½ pound thinly sliced raw chicken, pork, or turkey (cut while slightly frozen to easily obtain thin slices). Let meat marinate for at least 30 minutes, up to two hours. (Sometimes I add the marinade to ½ ground beef, turkey or chicken instead of sliced meat.) Heat 2 tablespoons vegetable oil in sauté pan or wok, add meat and stir fry until cooked through.

If you add thinly sliced vegetables such as onions, carrots, celery, cabbage, etc. to the cooked marinated meat and add left-over cooked rice, you end up with a delicious one pot meal.


OhioMom said...

We do have a good Asian marketplace here, and I will definitely plan a trip downtown. Since I am not a big salt lover, I have avoided using soy sauce .. thanks for the great tips!

Maria said...

Great post ... I always find that after I eat soy sauce my fingers seem to swell and feel pretty uncomfortable. Lower sodium soy is probably a good choice for us all.

Diva on a Diet said...

Ironic! I was just looking for low salt soy sauce alternatives myself! I found myself buying some Kikkoman Ponzu Sauce (basically citrus soy sauce) that came in at 400mg per tablespoon which worked out nicely, but I felt was still a bit too high. I will definitely need to give these lower sodium versions a try! Thank you soooooo much for the information!

~Diva on a Diet

Anonymous said...

Hi, based on the low sodium soy sauces that you ordered online which one is the best?

shambo said...

I've been using the World Harbors Angostura for years and like it. I recently started a new bottle of House of Tsang lower sodium soy sauce and find it good too. Because I order two bottles at a time, I've still got a couple of bottles to go through before I'll get around to ordering the Chinatown brand from HeartWise. So I can't comment on that particular product.

Anonymous said...

Try the kikkoman brand somen tsuyu 'dipping sauce for noodles".It lists 730 mg of sodium per FOUR tbs and has all the good flavors,e.g.,fish extract(stank!),mirin,soy sauce,kelp,vinegar.It is fresh and says "...use within 3 days after opening.",so I freeze it in one-tb cubes.

Jacqueline said...

Great article. Helpful reviews. Wonderful information. Thank you - Thank you.
We eat strict kosher and as we just started on this no/low salt thing - the kosher issue is going to be a problem for me. But I'm on a mission to find kosher AND low salt products.

shambo said...

Jacqueline, good luck with your search for those unique products. You may find that making everything yourself is your best bet. Let me know if there's anything I can help you with.

Umit Dogan Demir said...

This is a great article! Thank you. I agree that making the sauce at home is healthier than getting a manufactured product at grocer.

nightwatchren said...

Angostura Soy Sauce seems to be history. Which is an awful shame. World changed its name to Mizkan Online Store. An eMail from them said the mfgr is no longer making it.

shambo said...

Nightwatchren, you're right. Angostura lite soy sauce is no longer made. Luckily the House of Tsang low sodium soy sauce is available from online sources. And the new Coconut Aminos is a good substitute too.

Jenny said...

I still have yet to try Chinese 5 spice powder. Thanks for reminding me. Your stirfry sauce sounds delicious!

Anonymous said...

Thanks so much for all the information and the tips. I’ve always needed to watch the sodium but could never connect the dots...

Anonymous said...

The Chinatown soy sauce is great! Thicker and slightly different taste, but very good and you can't beet the sodium content!!